In the past, they always required some optical apparatus for viewing. I think this is the major limitation that kept 3D photography from taking off.
In the modern digital world, 3D viewing requires a special display. Panasonic builds 3D capability into many of their Viera displays. It also requires wearing glasses to get the 3D effect. Now, this seems like a serious drawback to home use, and it very well may be.
However, I can see a day when digital galleries gain popularity, if not overtaking prints altogether. 3D movies sure have taken off. Maybe when we all have new televisions and displays that include 3D technology basically for free, 3D photography will gain popularity. My current Viera display does not have 3D technology.
There is a very inexpensive 12.5mm dual lens available for Micro 4/3 cameras. It's got an aperture of f12, which will seriously limit how it can be applied. However, I'm sure that one could make some amazing 3D landscapes with it.
There are also techniques using two synched cameras to capture the paired images required for 3D imaging.
I am not ready to go into this, but will keep my eyes open. It would be neat to add a third dimension to my imaging, at least once in a while.